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A divergent variant of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 is present in California

YeeMey Seah1, Abhineet M Sharma2, Siming Zhang2, Rodrigo PP Almeida2 and Siobain Duffy1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, 14 College Farm Rd, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA

2 Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

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Virology Journal 2012, 9:235  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-9-235

Published: 13 October 2012



Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses are a problem for grape production globally. Symptoms are caused by a number of distinct viral species. During a survey of Napa Valley vineyards (California, USA), we found evidence of a new variant of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3). We isolated its genome from a symptomatic greenhouse-raised plant and fully sequenced it.


In a maximum likelihood analysis of representative GLRaV-3 gene sequences, the isolate grouped most closely with a recently sequenced variant from South Africa and a partial sequence from New Zealand. These highly divergent GLRaV-3 variants have predicted proteins that are more than 10% divergent from other GLRaV-3 variants, and appear to be missing an open reading frame for the p6 protein.


This divergent GLRaV-3 phylogroup is already present in grape-growing regions worldwide and is capable of causing symptoms of leafroll disease without the p6 protein.

Ampelovirus; Wine; Mealybug