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Evaluating viral interference between Influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus using real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction in chicken eggs

Shengqiang Ge12, Dongxia Zheng2, Yunling Zhao2, Hualei Liu2, Wenbo Liu1, Qing Sun1, Jinming Li2, Songmei Yu2, Yuanyuan Zuo2, Xiuju Han2, Lin Li2, Yan Lv2, Yingli Wang2, Xiufan Liu1 and Zhiliang Wang2*

Author Affiliations

1 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China

2 China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, Shandong, 266032, China

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Virology Journal 2012, 9:128  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-9-128

Published: 1 July 2012



Simultaneous and sequential allantoic cavity inoculations of Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken eggs with Influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) demonstrated that the interaction of AIV and NDV during co-infection was variable. Our research revisited the replication interference potential of AIV and NDV using real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) for AIV and NDV to specifically detect the viral genomes in mixed infections.


Data from this survey showed that when different doses of NDV (Lasota or F48E8) and AIV (F98 or H5N1) were simultaneously inoculated into embryonating chicken eggs (ECE), interference with the growth of NDV occurred, while interference with the growth of AIV did not occur. When equal amount of the two viruses were sequentially employed, the degree of interference was dependent upon the time of superinfection and the virulence of virus.


AIV have a negative impact on NDV growth if they are inoculated simultaneously or sequentially and that the degree of interference depended upon the quantity and relative virulence of the virus strains used; however, interference with AIV was not observed. Only if NDV were inoculated at an earlier time will NDV able to interfere with the growth of AIV.

Viral interference; Influenza virus; Newcastle disease virus; Real-time RT-PCR