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Open Access Research

Histopathological investigation in porcine infected with torque teno sus virus type 2 by inoculation

Miao Mei1, Ling Zhu1, Yun Wang1, Zhiwen Xu12*, Ling Zhao1, Xi Peng1, Yunfei Wu1, Song Li1 and Wanzhu Guo1

Author Affiliations

1 Animal Biotechnology Center, College of Veterinary Medicine of Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an 625014, P R China

2 Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health, College of Veterinary Medicine of Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an 625014, P R China

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Virology Journal 2011, 8:545  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-545

Published: 15 December 2011

Abstract

Background

Porcine torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is a small icosahedral and non-enveloped virus which contains a single-stranded (ssDNA), circular and negative DNA genome and infects mainly vertebrates and is currently classified into the 'floating' genus Anellovirus of Circoviridae with two species. Viral DNA of both porcine TTSuV species has a high prevalence in both healthy and diseased pigs worldwide and multiple infections of TTSuV with distinct genotypes or subtypes of the same species has been documented in the United States, Europe and Asia. However, there exists no information about histopathological lesions caused by infection with porcine TTSuV2.

Methods

Porcine liver tissue homogenate with 1 ml of 6.91 × 107genomic copies viral loads of porcine TTSuV2 that had positive result for torque teno sus virus type 2 and negative result for torque teno sus virus type 1 and porcine pseudorabies virus type 2 were used to inoculate specific pathogen-free piglets by intramuscular route and humanely killed at 3,7,10,14,17,21 and 24 days post inoculation (dpi), the control pigs were injected intramuscularly with 1 ml of sterile DMEM and humanely killed the end of the study for histopathological examination routinely processed, respectively.

Results

All porcine TTSuV2 inoculated piglets were clinic asymptomatic but developed myocardial fibroklasts and endocardium, interstitial pneumonia, membranous glomerular nephropathy, and modest inflammatory cells infiltration in portal areas in the liver, foci of hemorrhage in some pancreas islet, a tiny amount red blood cells in venule of muscularis mucosae and outer longitudinal muscle, rarely red blood cells in the microvasculation and infiltration of inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and eosinophils) of tonsil and hilar lymph nodes, infiltration of inflammatory lymphocytes and necrosis or degeneration and focal gliosis of lymphocytes in the paracortical zone after inoculation with porcine TTSuV2-containing tissue homogenate.

Conclusions

Analysis of these presentations revealed that porcine TTSuV2 was readily transmitted to TTSuV-negative swine and that infection was associated with characteristic pathologic changes in specific pathogen-free piglets inoculated with porcine TTSuV2. Those results indicated no markedly histopathological changes happened in those parenchymatous organs, especially the digestive system and immune system when the specific pathogen-free pigs were infected with porcine TTSuV2, hence, to some extent, it was not remarkable pathological agent for domestic pigs at least. So, porcine TTSuV2 could be an unrecognized pathogenic viral infectious etiology of swine. This study indicated a directly related description of lesions responsible for TTSuV2 infection in swine.

Keywords:
Torque teno sus virus 2(TTSuV2); Porcine; Histopathological lesions; Hematoxylin and eosin