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Open Access Highly Accessed Review

Observations on rift valley fever virus and vaccines in Egypt

Samia Ahmed Kamal

Author Affiliations

Virology department, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

Virology Journal 2011, 8:532  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-532

Published: 12 December 2011

Abstract

Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV, genus: Phlebovirus, family: Bunyaviridae), is an arbovirus which causes significant morbidity and mortality in animals and humans. RVFV was introduced for the first time in Egypt in 1977. In endemic areas, the insect vector control and vaccination is considering appropriate measures if applied properly and the used vaccine is completely safe and the vaccination programs cover all the susceptible animals. Egypt is importing livestock and camels from the African Horn & the Sudan for human consumption. The imported livestock and camels were usually not vaccinated against RVFV. But in rare occasions, the imported livestock were vaccinated but with unknown date of vaccination and the unvaccinated control contacts were unavailable for laboratory investigations. Also, large number of the imported livestock and camels are often escaped slaughtering for breeding which led to the spread of new strains of FMD and the introduction of RVFV from the enzootic African countries. This article provide general picture about the present situation of RVFV in Egypt to help in controlling this important disease.

Keywords:
Rift Valley fever virus; RVFV; Inactivated RVF vaccines; MP12; Live attenuated RVF vaccines; Smithburn strain.