Table 2

Comparison between hospitalized pandemic influenza A (H1N1) patients with or without bacterial coinfection

Variable

All patients

n(%)/median(± IQR)

N = 50

Bacterial coinfection

n(%)/median(± IQR)

P

OR

95% C1

Yes (n = 14)

No (n = 36)


Male b

25(50)

7(50.0)

18(50.0)

1.00

1.00

0.29-3.44

Age > 50 a

5(10)

4(28.6)

1(2.8)

0.02

14.00

1.40-139.81

Paediatric b

23(46)

7(50.0)

16(44.4)

0.72

1.25

0.36-4.31

Dyspnoea b

24(48)

7(50.0)

17(47.2)

0.86

1.12

0.33-3.84

Hypoxaemia a

12(24)

5(35.7)

7(19.4)

0.28

2.30

0.59-9.06

Comorbidity b

24(48)

10(71.4)

14(38.9)

0.04

3.93

1.03-15.00

Diabetes mellitus a

5(10)

3(21.4)

2(5.6)

0.13

4.64

0.68-31.44

Hypertension a

5(10)

3(21.4)

2(5.6)

0.13

4.64

0.68-31.44

Lung disease a

11(22)

4(28.6)

7(19.4)

0.48

1.66

0.40-6.88

Pregnancya

6(12)

1(7.1)

5(13.9)

0.66

0.48

0.05-4.50

Leukopenia a

4(8)

1(7.1)

3(8.3)

1

0.85

0.08-8.89

Lymphopaenia b

31(62)

6(42.9)

25(69.4)

0.08

0.33

0.09-1.18

Leukocytosis a

12(24)

7(50.0)

5(13.9)

0.02

6.20

1.51-25.41

Neutrophilia a

13(26)

8(57.1)

5(13.9)

0.004

8.27

2.00-34.16

Liver impairment a

12(29.3)

7(53.8)

5(17.9)

0.02

6.72

1.50-30.07

Renal impairment a

4(9.5)

3(25.0)

1(3.3)

0.06

9.67

O.89-104.82

Supplemental oxygen b

22(44)

10(71.4)

12(33.3)

0.02

5.00

1.30-19.30

Mechanical ventilation a

6(12)

3(21.4)

3(8.3)

0.33

3.00

0.53-17.09

ICU stay a

9(18)

4(28.6)

5(13.9)

0.25

2.48

0.56-11.07

Pneumonia b

25(50)

9(64.3)

16(44.4)

0.21

0.44

0.12-1.60

Complications a

13(26)

8(57.1)

5(13.9)

0.004

8.27

2.00-34.16

Died a

2(4)

2(14.3)

0(0)

0.07

0.25

0.15-0.41

Antibiotics on admission a

41(82)

14(100)

27(75.0)

0.05

1.52

1.22-1.89

Antibiotics pre-admission a

8(16)

3(21.4)

5(13.9)

0.67

1.70

0.35-8.28

Duration of hospitalizationc

5(3)

5(3.5)

5(3.25)

0.25

Non applicable


a Fisher's exact test; bChi-squared test; cNon-parametric Mann-Whitney test.

a and b expressed as number (%); c expressed as median (± IQR)

N = 50 for all patients except liver impairment n = 41 and renal impairment n = 42

Dhanoa et al. Virology Journal 2011 8:501   doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-501

Open Data