Table 1

Clinical and laboratory characteristics of hospitalized patients with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infections

Characteristics

No of patients (N = 50)

%


Male sex

25

50

Age < 50

45

90

Paediatric (≤ 15 years)

23

46

Cough

50

100

Fever

49

98

Dyspnoea

24

48

Rhinorrhoea

24

48

Sore throat*

16

36.4

Vomiting

12

24

Myalgia*

7

15.9

Headache*

7

15.9

Hypoxaemia

12

24

Tachypnoea

16

32

Pneumonia

25

50

Comorbidity**

24

48

Lung disease

11

22

Hypertension

5

10

Diabetes mellitus

5

10

Malignancy Ψ

3

6

Autoimmune¥

2

4

Others £

6

12

Complications® **

13

26

Pregnant

6

12

Coinfection Ω

17

34

Leukopenia©

4

8

Lymphopaenia©

31

62

Leukocytosis©

12

24

Neutrophilia ©

13

26

ALF §

12

29.3

ARF §

4

9.5

ICU

9

18

Supplemental oxygen

22

44

Mechanical ventilation

6

12

Died

2

4


* Not assessed in children < 3 years (n = 44)

** A patient may have more than one comorbidity or complications

¶ Includes asthma (n- = 9), Chronic obstructive airway disease (n = 1) and bronchiectasis (n = 1)

Ψ Includes chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 1), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 1), meningioma of brain (n = 1)

¥ Includes autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (n = 1), idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (n = 1)

£Includes cardiovascular disease (n = 2), immunosuppressives (n = 2), hypothyroidism (n = 1), stroke (n = 1)

® Includes liver impairment (n = 12), renal impairment (n = 4) septic shock (n = 2) and ARDS (n = 2).

Ω Includes bacterial (n = 14), viral (n = 3). The sites for isolation of 9 non-Mycoplasma bacteria: (blood = 2, sputum = 3, nasopharyngeal aspirate = 3, bronchoalveolar lavage = 2)

© Established values in our laboratory, Adults: leukocytes 4-11 × 109/L; neutrophils 2-7.5 × 109/L; lymphocyte 1.5-4 × 109/L; Paediatrics: age-dependent

ALF: abnormal liver function (n = 41) (raised alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase or both)

ARF: abnormal renal function (n = 42) (raised creatinine)

Dhanoa et al. Virology Journal 2011 8:501   doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-501

Open Data