Open Access Research

Emerging trends in Lassa fever: redefining the role of immunoglobulin M and inflammation in diagnosing acute infection

Luis M Branco1, Jessica N Grove2, Matt L Boisen23, Jeffrey G Shaffer4, Augustine Goba5, Mohammed Fullah56, Mambu Momoh56, Donald S Grant78 and Robert F Garry2*

Author Affiliations

1 Autoimmune Technologies, LLC, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

3 Corgenix Medical Corporation, Broomfield, Colorado, USA

4 Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

5 Lassa Fever Laboratory - Kenema Government Hospital, Kenema, Sierra Leone

6 Eastern Polytechnic College, Kenema, Republic of Sierra Leone

7 Ministry of Health and Sanitation Workplace Health, Freetown, Republic of Sierra Leone

8 Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward, Kenema, Republic of Sierra Leone

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Virology Journal 2011, 8:478  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-478

Published: 24 October 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Complete characteristics of study subjects analyzed for cytokines and clinical chemistry. An expanded set of groups was analyzed for age, gender, duration of illness, and major signs. Corresponding odds ratios are shown, and asterisks (*) indicate significance at the 5% level.

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Additional file 2:

Map of West Africa displaying calculated rates of LASV Ag, IgM, IgG, and dual antibody in sera samples obtained from Sierra Leonean Districts of Moyamba and Bombali. (A) Districts of Sierra Leone: the historically hyperendemic districts of Kenema and Kallahun are circled in blue, and the Northern and Southern districts of Bombali and Moyamba are underlined in red. A map outlining Sierra Leone's four provinces is shown in (B). The relative locations in Sierra Leone where panels of normal sera study samples were collected are boxed in red. Antigen and immunoglobulin rates for locations sampled in this study are outlined in insets. Numbers of sera analyzed from each region are noted (N). Serological evidence of LF has been reported in Senegal and Mali (denoted with solid blue circles), and outbreaks are commonly reported in endemic regions of Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia (denoted with solid red circles). The relative sub-Saharan geographical boundary for LF is outlined by the thick transparent orange line dissecting Guinea and Southern Mali [17]. Source of maps: A. and B. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Atlas_of_Sierra_Leone webcite; C. Google maps.

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