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Open Access Highly Accessed Review

Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Molecular Pathways to Insulin resistance

Fahed Parvaiz, Sobia Manzoor, Huma Tariq, Farakh Javed, Kaneez Fatima and Ishtiaq Qadri*

Author Affiliations

NUST Center of Virology and Immunology (NCVI), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan

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Virology Journal 2011, 8:474  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-474

Published: 18 October 2011

Abstract

Chronic Hepatitis C virus has the potential of inducing insulin resistance and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in vitro as well as in vivo . Structural and non-structural proteins of HCV modulate cellular gene expression in such a way that insulin signaling is hampered, concomitantly leads toward diabetes mellitus. A number of mechanisms have been proposed in regard to the HCV induced insulin resistance involving the upregulation of Inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, hypophosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2, phosphorylation of Akt, up-regulation of gluconeogenic genes, accumulation of lipids and targeting lipid storage organelles. This review provides an insight of molecular mechanisms by which HCV structural and non-structural proteins can induce insulin resistance.

Keywords:
HCV Infection; Molecular Pathways; Insulin Resistance