Table 1

Previous studies within different cell types show different Vpr localization patterns

Cell type

Tag system

Tag end

Other tagged proteins

Time (h)

Localization pattern

Comments

Ref


HeLa

b-Gal

C

--

48

n

[17]


HA

N

--

48

pn

[21]


b-Gal

C

--

38

pn, pef


FLAG

N

--

24

n, pn, pef

[18]


Untagged

--

--

5

n, pn, pef

VV infection

[60]


Untagged

--

--

48

n

[73]


GFP

N

PK

24

c

[74]


EYFP

N

--

24/48/72

n/n, pef/pef

Time-dependent Vpr localization

[27]

C

--

24/48/72

n, pef/n, pef/pef


FLAG

N

--

48

n

[57]


GFP

C

--

18

pn

[29]


GFP

C

--

18

n

[16]


EGFP

N

--

24

n, pef

[58]

C

--

pn



mCherry

N

--

pn, pef

C

--

pn


EGFP

N

--

24

n, pef

[26]

C

--

n, pn



HA

N

--

n, pef


FLAG

N

IRES + GFP

36

n

[75]


FLAG

C

PKA, 6His

?

n

[76]

120

n, pn

Infection


EGFP

N

--

14

n, pef

[25]


FLAG

N

--

48

pn, pef

[59]


FLAG

N

GST (C)

?

n

Micro-injected

[77]


GFP

N

--

24

n

[78]


GFP

N

IRES

24

n

Transduction

[79]


FLAG, YFP

N

--

36, 48

n

[80]


293T

HA

N

--

24

n

[15]


EGFP

N

--

24

n

[27]

C

--

pn, pef


FLAG

N

--

48

pn

[57]


GFP

N

--

?

n, pn, pef

[44]


GFP

N

PK

24

c

[20]


COS-7

GFP

N

--

24

n

[78]


Untagged

N

--

48

n, pn, pef

[81]


FLAG

N

--

?

pn, m

[13]


HepG2

FLAG

N

--

48

n

[57]


MDM

CMV

N

--

24

n, pn

Transduction

[62]


GFP

C

--

6

n

[16]


Alexa-488

N

--

48

n

EC Vpr

[63]


Jurkat

Untagged

--

--

48

n, pn

[61]


Perivascular macrophage

Tg

N

--

n

Tg-Vpr mice

[71]


U-87 MG

ECFP

N

--

24

n, c

[7]


A summary of studies reported in the literature about Vpr localization patterns in different cell lines is reported. Most of the studies have been accomplished in HeLa and 293T cells and results have differed according to the tagging system employed, the posttransfection time point, and/or location of the tag (at either the amino- or carboxyl-terminus). Very few studies have utilized other cell types relevant to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Abbreviations are as follows: CMV: cytomegalovirus, EC: extracellular, ECFP: enhanced cyan fluorescent protein, EYFP, enhanced yellow fluorescent protein, FLAG: DYKDDDDK (proprietary tag, Sigma, St. Louis, MO), β-gal: galactosidase, GFP: green fluorescent protein, GST, glutathione S-transferase, HA: hemagglutinin, IRES: internal ribosomal entry site, PK: pyruvate kinase, PKA: protein kinase A, Tg: transgenic, VV: vaccinia virus. Localization patterns are abbreviated as follows: n: nuclear, pn: perinuclear, pef: punctate extranuclear foci, c: cytoplasmic, m: mitochondrial.

Ferrucci et al. Virology Journal 2011 8:397   doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-397

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