ZsGreen-Vpr localization pattern in 293T cells is not affected by addition of Nef protein. (A) DsRed2, similar to ZsGreen protein, was uniformly distributed throughout the intracellular environment. (B) Nef-DsRed2 displays a cytoplasmic accumulation, being completely excluded from the nuclear compartment. (C) As a control, ZsGreen and DsRed2 expression vectors were cotransfected and both localized evenly in the intracellular environment (as evidenced by the overlapping yellow staining). (D) When both ZsGreen-Vpr and Nef-DsRed2 expression vectors were cotransfected, neither protein's localization pattern (perinuclear and cytoplasmic, respectively) was altered. In parts A and B, the first, second, and third columns are DAPI, FITC, and merged view, respectively. In parts C and D, the first, second, third, and fourth columns represent DAPI, FITC (green), TRITC (red), and merged views, respectively. Each figure represents a cross-sectional view of the cell and is representative of the entire cell population observed.
Ferrucci et al. Virology Journal 2011 8:397 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-397