ZsGreen-tagged Vpr proteins localize at the nuclear envelope and in cytoplasmic speckles within 293T cells. (A) ZsGreen protein was evenly distributed throughout the cell, with no preference of accumulation in any intracellular organelle. (B) ZsGreen-Vpr and (C) Vpr-ZsGreen show preferential accumulation at the perinuclear boundaries and punctate intranuclear accumulation. Dispersed presence was detectable in the cytoplasm along with localized herniations at the nuclear envelope. The position of the tag (either at the N- or C-terminus) did not influence the Vpr localization pattern. For all figures, the first column represents DAPI (nuclear) staining, the second column represents the FITC (green) channel, and the third column is the merged view where the two channels overlap, in order to give a complete view of the intracellular localization. All figures are shown as cross-sectional views and are representative of the entire cell population observed.
Ferrucci et al. Virology Journal 2011 8:397 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-397