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Detection of HIV-1 dual infections in highly exposed treated patients

Guadalupe Andreani1, Constanza Espada1, Ana Ceballos1, Juan Ambrosioni1, Alejandro Petroni2, Dora Pugliese2, María Belén Bouzas3, Silvia Fernandez Giuliano3, Mercedes C Weissenbacher1, Marcelo Losso4, Jorge Benetucci2, Jean K Carr5 and Liliana Martínez Peralta1*

  • * Corresponding author: Liliana Martínez Peralta

  • † Equal contributors

Author Affiliations

1 National Reference Center for AIDS, Microbiology Department, (Paraguay 2155), School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, (C1121ABG), Argentina

2 Laboratorio de Retrovirus, Fundación de Ayuda al Inmunodeficiente (FUNDAI), (Uspallata 2272), Buenos Aires, (C1282AEN), Argentina

3 Virology Section. Francisco Javier Muñiz, Infectious Diseases Hospital, (Uspallata 2272), Buenos Aires, (C1282AEN), Argentina

4 Servicio de Inmusuprimidos, Ramos Mejia Hospital, (Urquiza 609), Buenos Aires, (C1221ADC), Argentina

5 St James School of Medicine, (Lake Albert Rd), The Quarter, (A-1 2640), Anguilla

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Virology Journal 2011, 8:392  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-392

Published: 8 August 2011



Genetic characterization of HIV-1 in Argentina has shown that BF recombinants predominate among heterosexuals and injecting drug users, while in men who have sex with men the most prevalent form is subtype B.


The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of HIV dual infections in HIV-infected individuals with high probability of reinfection

Study design

Blood samples were collected from 23 HIV positive patients with the risk of reinfection from Buenos Aires. A fragment of the HIV gene pol was amplified and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Antiretroviral drug resistance patterns of all the sequences were analyzed.


Five dual infections were detected with four patients coinfected with subtype B and BF recombinants and one patient was coinfected with two BF recombinants presenting different recombination patterns. Prolonged infection with a stable clinical condition was observed in the five individuals. Resistance mutation patterns were different between the predominant and the minority strains.


Our results show that HIV dual infection can occur with closely related subtypes, and even with different variants of the same recombinant form in certain populations. Clinical observations showed neither aggressive disease progression nor impact on the resistance patterns in the dually-infected patients.