Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from Virology Journal and BioMed Central.

Open Access Review

Cross-talk between cd1d-restricted nkt cells and γδ cells in t regulatory cell response

Wei Liu1 and Sally A Huber2*

Author Affiliations

1 The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin,150001, PR China

2 University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA

For all author emails, please log on.

Virology Journal 2011, 8:32  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-32

Published: 21 January 2011

Abstract

CD1d is a non-classical major histocompatibility class 1-like molecule which primarily presents either microbial or endogenous glycolipid antigens to T cells involved in innate immunity. Natural killer T (NKT) cells and a subpopulation of γδ T cells expressing the Vγ4 T cell receptor (TCR) recognize CD1d. NKT and Vγ4 T cells function in the innate immune response via rapid activation subsequent to infection and secrete large quantities of cytokines that both help control infection and modulate the developing adaptive immune response. T regulatory cells represent one cell population impacted by both NKT and Vγ4 T cells. This review discusses the evidence that NKT cells promote T regulatory cell activation both through direct interaction of NKT cell and dendritic cells and through NKT cell secretion of large amounts of TGFβ, IL-10 and IL-2. Recent studies have shown that CD1d-restricted Vγ4 T cells, in contrast to NKT cells, selectively kill T regulatory cells through a caspase-dependent mechanism. Vγ4 T cell elimination of the T regulatory cell population allows activation of autoimmune CD8+ effector cells leading to severe cardiac injury in a coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) myocarditis model in mice. CD1d-restricted immunity can therefore lead to either immunosuppression or autoimmunity depending upon the type of innate effector dominating during the infection.