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HIV-1 is budded from CD4+ T lymphocytes independently of exosomes

In-Woo Park12 and Johnny J He12*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA

2 Center for AIDS Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA

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Virology Journal 2010, 7:234  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-7-234

Published: 16 September 2010


The convergence of HIV-1 budding and exosome biogenesis at late endosomal compartments called multivesicular bodies has fueled the debate on whether HIV-1 is budded from its target cells and transmitted in the form of exosomes. The point of contention appears to primarily derive from the types of target cells in question and lack of a well-defined protocol to separate exosomes from HIV-1. In this study, we adapted and established a simplified protocol to define the relationship between HIV-1 production and exosome biogenesis. Importantly, we took advantage of the newly established protocol to unequivocally show that HIV-1 was produced from CD4+ T lymphocytes Jurkat cells independently of exosomes. Thus, this study not only presents a simplified way to obtain highly purified HIV-1 virions for identification of host proteins packaged into virions, but also provides a technical platform that can be employed to define the relationship between exosome biogenesis and budding of HIV-1 or other viruses and its contributions to viral pathogenesis.