Putative model of interaction of HPV capsids with the ECM and cell surface. 1) HSPG, a widely expressed and evolutionary conserved cell surface receptor, is suggested as the initial attachment receptor for HPVs and is frequently found in the ECM and on the surface of most cells. HPV capsids have also been shown to bind to ECM-resident laminin-5 although this interaction seems to be of lesser importance for a productive infection. 2) Accumulating evidence suggests that a secondary receptor is involved in the infectious entry of HPV subsequent to HSPG interaction. The capsids are transferred to the putative secondary receptor on the cell surface. Whether transfer from primary ECM binding sites to primary cell surface binding sites occurs has not been directly investigated (dotted arrows). Capsid interaction with HSPG results in a conformational change that, in turn, results in the exposure of a furin cleavage site. Following this proteolytic cleavage, an additional conformational change exposes the binding site for the secondary cell surface receptor or lowers the affinity for the primary receptor which results in the hand-off to the second receptor, which then triggers endocytosis 3).
Horvath et al. Virology Journal 2010 7:11 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-7-11