Water extracts of P. vulgaris inhibit lentiviral infectivity with low cell toxicity. DMSO, water extracts and ethanol extracts of P. vulgaris were diluted in media to 0.2% (water extracts: 66 μg/mL of Ames 27664, 42.2 μg/mL of Ames 27665, 59.6 μg/mL of Ames 27666, or 62.4 μg/mL of Ames 27748 and ethanol extracts: 66.8 μg/mL of Ames 27664, 69.2 μg/mL of Ames 27665, 64.2 μg/mL of Ames 27666, or 67.4 μg/mL of Ames 27748). Equivalent quantities of EIAVWSU5 were added to each well of ED cells along with the diluted extracts. Forty h following infection, cells were fixed and immunostained for viral antigen. Cell-viability studies were performed in parallel. Cell viability and virus infectivity are shown as a ratio of the values in the presence of the extracts divided by the DMSO control. Shown are the averages and standard errors of three experiments performed in triplicate. *, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.001.
Brindley et al. Virology Journal 2009 6:8 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-6-8