Lactoferrin inhibition of HSV-1 cell-to-cell spread is mediated by gD. HSV-1 KOS (a, d), gC-39 (b) and Rid1 (c) infection of Vero cells in the absence or presence of 500 μg/ml of human lactoferrin. Plaques formed by the infecting virus were visualized by crystal violet staining after 5 days of culture in the presence of human immunoglobulin (a-c) or by immunoperoxidase staining with polyclonal anti-HSV-1 antibody after 20 h of culture (d). Lactoferrin dramatically impaired the cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 KOS and gC-39, but not of Rid1.
Välimaa et al. Virology Journal 2009 6:53 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-6-53