FSL-1 transiently induced pro-inflammatory cytokines. Selected cytokines were quantified kinetically from murine vaginal lavages (n = 5/treatment) collected 0, 6, 24 and 48 h after FSL-1 (6 μg; closed square) or DPBS vehicle (60 μL; open circle) application. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased (*, p < 0.05; Student's t-test) 6 h after FSL-1 application compared to DPBS vehicle. By 24 h, induced cytokines had returned to DPBS vehicle levels. Each collection time point is presented as mean ± SEM of five replicates from two independent experiments.
Rose et al. Virology Journal 2009 6:195 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-6-195