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Hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin containing high titers of pandemic H1N1 hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antibodies provides dose-dependent protection against lethal virus challenge in SCID mice

Christine Hohenadl1, Walter Wodal1, Astrid Kerschbaum1, Richard Fritz1, M Keith Howard1, Maria R Farcet2, Daniel Portsmouth1, John K McVey3, Donald A Baker3, Hartmut J Ehrlich4, P Noel Barrett1 and Thomas R Kreil2*

Author Affiliations

1 Vaccine R&D, Baxter BioScience, Orth/Donau, Austria

2 Global Pathogen Safety, Baxter BioScience, Benatzkygasse 2-6, 1221 Vienna, Austria

3 Global Quality, Baxter BioScience, Deerfield, Illinois, USA

4 Global R&D, Baxter BioScience, 1220 Vienna, Austria

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Virology Journal 2014, 11:70  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-11-70

Published: 16 April 2014

Abstract

Background

Convalescent plasma and fractionated immunoglobulins have been suggested as prophylactic or therapeutic interventions during an influenza pandemic.

Findings

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations manufactured from human plasma collected before the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, and post-pandemic hyperimmune (H)-IVIG preparations were characterized with respect to hemagglutination inhibition (HI), microneutralization (MN) and neuraminidase-inhibiting (NAi) antibody titers against pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and seasonal H1N1 (sH1N1) viruses. The protective efficacy of the IVIG and H-IVIG preparations was evaluated in a SCID mouse challenge model.

Substantial levels of HI, MN and NAi antibodies against pH1N1 (GMTs 1:45, 1:204 and 1: 727, respectively) and sH1N1 (GMTs 1:688, 1:4,946 and 1:312, respectively) were present in pre-pandemic IVIG preparations. In post-pandemic H-IVIG preparations, HI, MN and NAi antibody GMTs against pH1N1 were 1:1,280, 1:11,404 and 1:2,488 (28-, 56- and 3.4-fold enriched), respectively, compared to pre-pandemic IVIG preparations (pā€‰<ā€‰0.001). Post-pandemic H-IVIG (HI titer 1:1,280) provided complete protection from lethality of SCID mice against pH1N1 challenge (100% of mice survived for 29 days post-challenge). Pre-pandemic IVIG (HI titer 1:70) did not provide significant protection against pH1N1 challenge (50% of mice survived 29 days post-challenge compared to 40% survival in the buffer control group). There was a highly significant correlation between circulating in vivo HI and MN antibody titers and survival (pā€‰<ā€‰0001).

Conclusion

The substantial enrichment of HA- and NA-specific antibodies in H-IVIG and the efficacious protection of SCID mice against challenge with pH1N1 suggests H-IVIG as a promising intervention against pandemic influenza for immunocompromised patients and other risk groups.

Keywords:
H1N1; IVIG; Influenza; Intravenous immunoglobulin; Passive transfer; Neutralizing antibody; Neuraminidase; Hemagglutinin