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Genetic heterogeneity of swine hepatitis E virus isolates from Yunnan province, China in 2011–2012

Xianghua Shu1, Xinhui Duan1, Chunlian Song1, Jintao Li2, Lei Jiang1, Gefen Yin1 and Wengui Li1*

Author Affiliations

1 College of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China

2 Department of Laboratory Animal Science, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650500, China

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Virology Journal 2014, 11:162  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-11-162

Published: 4 September 2014



Hepatitis E is a disease of major public-health concern mainly in developing countries. Although molecular and sero-epidemiological investigations of HEV have been performed in many provinces in China, the epidemiological data from Yunnan Province are limited and genotypes are not be fully characterized. In this study the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) detected in pigs from Yunnan province, China was evaluated.


A total of 13 out of 187 pig fecal samples collected in 2011 revealed HEV positive results; likewise, 7 out of 69 samples collected in 2012 exhibited positive results. These findings indicated a total prevalence of 7.8% (20/256). Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analysis results revealed that nine strains were found in the samples obtained in 2011, in which 87.1% to 99.4% nucleotide sequence identity was shared among these strains; and 77.0% to 81.9%, 52.2% to 53.6%, 77.0% to 88.2% and 77.9% to 96.8% nucleotide sequence identities were shared with strains representing genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4. Five strains were detected in the samples obtained in 2012, in which 94.2% to 99.3% nucleotide sequence identity was shared among the strains, and 81.0% to 82.5%, 81.8% to 83.2%, 81.0% to 92.7% and 81.0% to 97.8% nucleotide sequence identities were shared with strains representing the genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4.


Analysis of fourteen detected HEV strains revealed that three of them were subtype 4d, two were subtype 4b; the nine remaining isolated strains were subtype 4 h. These results indicated that the prevalence of HEV in the swine herds of Yunnan was quite high, additional public-health concerns should focus on pork safety.

Hepatitis E virus; Phylogenetic analysis; Viral diversity