Detection and molecular characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 from piglets with Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases in Colombia
Virology Journal 2014, 11:143 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-11-143Published: 8 August 2014
The porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD) has been known since 1991 in Canada, but the first outbreak of PCVAD in Colombia was reported in 2007. In order to understand the molecular epidemiology of the disease and to establish the origin of the virus in the country, the study presented here intended to evaluate the presence of PCV2-associated systemic infection in piglets from different geographical regions over a period of 9-years (2002 -2010). The analysis included samples collected before, during and after outbreaks of PCVAD in pigs from Colombia. The PCV2 ORF2 from the positive samples was sequenced and used to determine the genotypes of the strains and to study the dynamic of these genotypes throughout the time.
PCV2 DNA was detected in cases related to PCV2-associated systemic infection as well as in healthy pigs with a presumable persistent infection. The analysis of the ORF2 nucleotide full length sequence of twenty-three strains allowed to divide them into two groups: PCV2a and PCV2b. At the amino acid level the main variations in the sequence of the capsid protein were found in regions located within the immunoreactive areas.
The results of this study demonstrated for the first time, that the two subgroups: PCV2a and PCV2b have been circulating in swine from Colombia. In addition, the study showed that genotype PCV2b is present in Colombian pigs suffering from both clinical and presumable persistent infection and that the PCV2b genotype was present in the Colombian pig population even before recognition of the disease in the country and it became predominant through time.