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Open Access Short report

Elevated dietary zinc oxide levels do not have a substantial effect on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PPRSV) vaccination and infection

Weidong Chai1, Zhenya Wang1, Pawel Janczyk2, Sven Twardziok3, Ulrike Blohm4, Nikolaus Osterrieder1 and Michael Burwinkel1*

Author Affiliations

1 Institut für Virologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Robert-von-Ostertag-Str. 7-13, 14163 Berlin, Germany

2 Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, Abteilung für Biologische Sicherheit, Fachgruppe für Molekulare Diagnostik und Genetik, Diedersdorfer Weg 1, 12277 Berlin, Germany

3 Molekularbiologie und Bioinformatik, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Arnimallee 22, 14195 Berlin, Germany

4 Institut für Immunologie, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany

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Virology Journal 2014, 11:140  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-11-140

Published: 8 August 2014

Abstract

Background

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important infectious agents for the swine industry worldwide. Zinc (Zn) salts, which are widely used as a dietary supplement in swine nutrition, have shown antiviral effects in vitro as well as in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary zinc oxide supplementation on vaccination and challenge infection with PRRSV.

Findings

The clinical course of PRRS and the success of vaccination with an experimental inactivated vaccine were compared between animals receiving a conventional diet (50 ppm Zn, control group) and diets supplemented with Zn oxide (ZnO) at final Zn concentrations of 150 or 2,500 ppm. Pigs receiving higher dietary Zn levels showed a tendency towards higher neutralizing antibody levels after infection, while dietary Zn levels did not substantially influence the number of antiviral IFN-gamma secreting cells (IFN-gamma-SC) or percentages of blood immune cell subsets after infection. Finally, feeding higher dietary Zn levels reduced neither clinical symptoms nor viral loads.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that higher levels of dietary ZnO do not have the potential to stimulate or modulate systemic immune responses after vaccination and heterologous PRRSV infection to an extent that could improve the clinical and virological outcome.

Keywords:
PRRSV; Inactivated vaccine; Dietary zinc oxide