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A novel bocavirus in canine liver

Linlin Li12, Patricia A Pesavento3, Christian M Leutenegger4, Marko Estrada4, Lark L Coffey12, Samia N Naccache25, Erik Samayoa25, Charles Chiu25, Jianming Qiu6, Chunlin Wang7, Xutao Deng1 and Eric Delwart12*

Author Affiliations

1 Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA, USA

2 Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA

3 Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA

4 IDEXX Reference Laboratories, CA, USA

5 UCSF-Abbott Viral Diagnostics and Discovery Center, CA, USA

6 Department of Microbiology, University of Kansas, KS, USA

7 Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford, CA, USA

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Virology Journal 2013, 10:54  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-54

Published: 13 February 2013



Bocaviruses are classified as a genus within the Parvoviridae family of single-stranded DNA viruses and are pathogenic in some mammalian species. Two species have been previously reported in dogs, minute virus of canines (MVC), associated with neonatal diseases and fertility disorders; and Canine bocavirus (CBoV), associated with respiratory disease.


In this study using deep sequencing of enriched viral particles from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, necrotizing vasculitis, granulomatous lymphadenitis and anuric renal failure, we identified and characterized a novel bocavirus we named Canine bocavirus 3 (CnBoV3). The three major ORFs of CnBoV3 (NS1, NP1 and VP1) shared less than 60% aa identity with those of other bocaviruses qualifying it as a novel species based on ICTV criteria. Inverse PCR showed the presence of concatemerized or circular forms of the genome in liver.


We genetically characterized a bocavirus in a dog liver that is highly distinct from prior canine bocaviruses found in respiratory and fecal samples. Its role in this animal’s complex disease remains to be determined.

Canine bocavirus 3; Episome; Coinfection