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Open Access Research

The prevalence and risk factors of cytomegalovirus infection in inflammatory bowel disease in Wuhan, Central China

Fengming Yi1, Jie Zhao2, Rishi Vishal Luckheeram2, Yuan Lei2, Changgao Wang2, Sha Huang2, Lu Song2, Wei Wang2 and Bing Xia12*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University School of Medicine, Donghu Road 169, Wuhan 430071, P.R. of China

2 The Hubei Clinical Center & Key Laboratory of Intestinal & Colorectal Diseases, Wuhan 430071, P.R. of China

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Virology Journal 2013, 10:43  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-43

Published: 1 February 2013

Abstract

Background

The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not clear and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is often associated with IBD patients. The etiologic link between IBD and CMV infection needs to be studied. The objective of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of CMV in a cohort of IBD patients from Central China.

Methods

Two hundred and twenty six IBD patients (189 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 37 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD)), and 290 age and sex matched healthy controls were recruited. CMV DNA was detected by nested PCR, while serum anti-CMV IgG and anti-CMV IgM was determined by ELISAs. Colonoscopy/enteroscopy with biopsy of diseased tissues and subsequent H&E stain were then conducted in IBD patients with positive anti-CMV IgM. Finally, we analyzed the prevalence and clinical risk factors of CMV infection in IBD patients.

Results

The prevalence of CMV DNA and anti-CMV IgG positive rate in IBD patients were 84.07% and 76.11%, respectively, higher than those in healthy controls (59.66% and 50.69%, respectively, P < 0.05), However, anti-CMV IgM positive rate was no different with healthy controls (1.77% vs 0.34%, P = 0.235). In univariate analysis of risk factors, the recent use of corticosteroid was associated with increase of CMV DNA and IgM positive rate in UC (P = 0.035 and P = 0.015, respectively), aminosalicylic acid drug therapy was correlated with positivity of CMV DNA and IgG in UC and CMV DNA in CD (P = 0.041, P < 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively), the treatment of immunosuppresent was correlated with CMV IgM (P < 0.001). Furthermore, patients with severe UC were significantly associated with CMV DNA and IgM (P = 0.048 and P = 0.031, respectively). Malnutrition (albumin < 35 G/L) was also found to be related with CMV recent infection (P = 0.031). In multivariate analysis of risk factors in UC, pancolitis was significantly associated with CMV DNA positivity (P = 0.001). Severe UC and pancolitis seemed to be related with IgG positivity. For CD, there was just single factor associated with CMV positive in each group, multivariate analysis was unnecessary.

Conclusions

CMV positive rate in IBD patients was significantly higher, than in healthy controls. The use of aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroid, immunosuppressants, pancolitis and severe IBD patients seemed to be more susceptible to CMV infection in univariate analysis of risk factors. However, no risk factor was found to be significantly correlated with CMV infection in multivariate analysis of risk factors.

Keywords:
Inflammatory bowel disease; Ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; Cytomegalovirus; Risk factors