Table 2

Cellular factors interacting synergistically with Tat (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/RefSeq/HIVInteractions/ webcite)
Protein name Protein Acc Ref PMID(s) Interaction description
Beta-nerve growth factor precursor NP_002497.2 8178451 Nerve growth factor synergizes with HIV-1 Tat to induce HIV-1 gene expression in neuronal and glial cell lines
CD40 ligand NP_000065.1 Recombinant CD40L synergizes with HIV-1 Tat to increase TNF-alpha release from primary human monocytes and microglia in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner. This synergism is attributed to a Tat-mediated up-regulation of CD40
CDK-activating kinase assembly factor MAT1 isoform 1 NP_002422.1 8934526 TFIIH synergizes with HIV-1 Tat to induce transcription elongation from the HIV-1 LTR promoter
Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 NP_001790.1
Cyclin-H isoform 1 NP_001230.1 8934526
Cytochrome B-245 heavy chain NP_000388.2 21029719 Nox2 is involved in HIV-1 Tat-induced NADPH oxidase p65 and IKK phosphorylation
E3 SUMO-protein ligase EGR2 isoform a NP_000390.2 11909874 HIV-1 Tat (through amino acids 30–40) binds to Egr-2 and synergizes with this protein to super induce the FasL promoter
Early growth response protein 3 isoform 1 NP_004421.2
Endothelial transcription factor GATA-2 isof. 1 NP_116027.2 9517987 GATA-2 synergizes with HIV-1 Tat to enhance transcriptional activity from the HIV-1 LTR promoter
Fibroblast growth factor 2 NP_001997.5 HIV-1 Tat synergizes with bFGF to promote Kaposi's sarcoma, endothelial cell growth and locomotion, and secretion of matrix-metalloproteinase-2
General transcription factor IIF subunit 1 & 2 NP_002087.2 TFIIF synergizes with HIV-1 Tat and the cellular co-activator Tat-SF1 during Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter
NP_004119.1
General transcription factor IIH subunit 1, 2, 3 and 4 NP_005307.1 8934526 TFIIH synergizes with HIV-1 Tat to induce transcription elongation from the HIV-1 LTR promoter
NP_001506.1
NP_001507.2
NP_001508.1
Histone acetyltransferase KAT2B NP_003875.3 HIV-1 Tat synergizes with P/CAF to activate the HIV-1 LTR promoter
Histone acetyltransferase p300 NP_001420.2 18226242 HIV-1 Tat, NAP-1, and p300 synergistically activate HIV-1 transcription
Interferon gamma precursor NP_000610.2 IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma synergize with HIV-1 Tat to promote in nude mice the development of angioproliferative Kaposi's sarcoma-like lesions
10446807 HIV-1 Tat synergizes with IFN-gamma to induce iNOS activity in purified rat microglial cultures
18569454 Tat and IFN-gamma synergistically induce the expression of CXCL10, which is inhibited by MEK1/2 inhibitor and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor
HIV-1 Tat in combination with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha increases CXCL10 mRNA and protein in human astrocytes through the activation of the p38, Jnk, and Akt signaling pathways and their downstream transcription factors, NF-kappaB and STAT-1alpha
19941336 HIV-1 Tat increases CXCL10 expression in IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha stimulated human astrocytes via NADPH oxidase
Interleukin-1 beta protein NP_000567.1 10438928 IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma synergize with HIV-1 Tat to promote in nude mice the development of angioproliferative Kaposi's sarcoma-like lesions
Nuclear factor 1C-type isoform 5 NP_005588.2 HIV-1 Tat synergizes with CTF to activate transcription and enhance transcript elongation and exon skipping
Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 isoform A NP_765978.1 NFATc synergizes with NF-kappa B and HIV-1 Tat in transcriptional activation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter and enhances HIV-1 replication in T cells
Nucleosome assembly protein 1-like 1 NP_004528.1 18226242 HIV-1 Tat, NAP-1, and p300 synergistically activate HIV-1 transcription
RISC-loading complex subunit TARBP2 isoform a NP_599150.1 TRBP2 binds to HIV-1 TAR RNA and synergizes with HIV-1 Tat to activate the HIV-1 LTR promoter
TATA-box-binding protein isoform 1 NP_003185.1 TBP synergizes with HIV-1 Tat during Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter
T-box transcription factor TBX21 NP_037483.1 18300036 Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with HIV-1 Tat/T-bet co-cultures with CD4 + T cells, resulting in increased levels of IFN-gamma
TFIIH basal transcription factor complex helicase XPB subunit NP_000113.1 8934526 TFIIH synergizes with HIV-1 Tat to induce transcription elongation from the HIV-1 LTR promoter
TFIIH basal transcription factor complex helicase XPD subunit isoform 1 NP_000391.1
Thyroid hormone receptor alpha isoform 2 NP_003241.2 HIV-1 Tat synergizes with thyroid hormone (T3) receptor alpha to activate the HIV-1 LTR promoter in the absence of T3, which is relieved in its presence, suggesting a possible role for T3 in the control of HIV-1 gene expression
Transcription elongation factor A protein 1 isoform 1/ protein 2 isoform α/ protein 3 NP_006747.1 1559613 TFIIS synergizes with HIV-1 Tat during transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter
NP_003186.1
NP_003187.1
Transcription factor Sp1 isoform a Sp1 synergizes with HIV-1 Tat to activate HIV-1 transcription
Tumor necrosis factor 15246652 HIV-1 Tat synergizes with TNF-alpha to enhance IL-6 secretion and activate human central nervous system-derived endothelial cells
19479051 HIV-1 Tat synergizes with TNF-alpha to induce the expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and ELAM-1
19941336 IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma synergize with HIV-1 Tat to promote in nude mice the development of angioproliferative Kaposi's sarcoma-like lesions
HIV-1 Tat and TNF-alpha synergistically activate the adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells
HIV-1 Tat in combination with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha increases CXCL10 mRNA and protein in human astrocytes through the activation of the p38, Jnk, and Akt signaling pathways and their downstream transcription factors, NF-kappaB and STAT-1alpha
HIV-1 Tat increases CXCL10 expression in IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha stimulated human astrocytes via NADPH oxidase
Zinc finger protein GLI2 NP_005261.2 11160734 GLI-2 physically interacts with HIV-1 Tat (demonstrated in GST pull-down experiments) and strongly synergizes with Tat during transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter

Bagashev and Sawaya

Bagashev and Sawaya Virology Journal 2013 10:358   doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-358

Open Data