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Open Access Highly Accessed Research

Local production of CCL3, CCL11, and IFN-γ correlates with disease severity in murine parainfluenza virus infection

Manika Suryadevara1*, Cynthia A Bonville1, Helene F Rosenberg2 and Joseph B Domachowske1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA

2 Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA

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Virology Journal 2013, 10:357  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-357

Published: 21 December 2013



Using a murine model of parainfluenza virus infection (mPIV1 or Sendai virus; SeV), we compared the inflammatory responses to lethal and sub-lethal infections in inbred DBA/2 mice.


Mice were intranasally inoculated with either 1.6×103 or 1.6×105 infectious units (IU) of SeV or diluent control. Clinical data including daily weights, oxygen saturation, and lung function via whole body plethysmography were collected on days 0, 3–7, and 9–14. Clarified whole lung homogenates were evaluated for inflammatory markers by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Data were analyzed using ANOVA or Student t-tests, as appropriate.


Mice inoculated with 1.6×105 IU of SeV developed a lethal infection with 100% mortality by day 7, while mice inoculated with 1.6×103 IU developed a clinically significant infection, with universal weight loss but only 32% mortality. Interestingly, peak virus recovery from the lungs of mice inoculated with 1.6×105 IU of SeV did not differ substantially from that detected in mice that received the 100-fold lower inoculum. In contrast, concentrations of CCL5 (RANTES), CCL11 (eotaxin), interferon-γ, CXCL10 (IP-10), and CCL3 (MIP-1α) were significantly higher in lung tissue homogenates from mice inoculated with 1.6×105 IU (p < 0.05). In the lethal infection, levels of CCL11, interferon- γ and CCL3 all correlated strongly with disease severity.


We observed that severity of SeV-infection in DBA/2 mice was not associated with virus recovery but rather with the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, specifically CCL11, interferon- γ and CCL3, detected in lung tissue in response to SeV infection.

Sendai virus; Parainfluenza virus; CCL3; MIP-1α; CCL11; Eotaxin; Interferon-γ