Human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses in influenza-like illness in Latin America
1 US Naval Medical Research Unit 6, Lima, Peru
2 Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
3 Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud, Lima, Perú
4 Hospital Solano, Buenos Aires, Argentina
5 Hospital Infantil Manuel de Jesus Rivera, Managua, Nicaragua
6 LARDIDEV-Biomed-UC, Maracay, Venezuela
7 Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
8 ONG Rayos de Sol, Asuncion, Paraguay
9 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
10 Hospital Vozandes and Universidad de las Americas, Quito, Ecuador
11 Hospital Nacional de Metapan, Metapan, El Salvador
12 Clinica Alcivar and Hospital Vernaza, Guayaquil, Ecuador
13 Hospital Departamental Humberto Alvarado de Masaya, Masaya, Managua, Nicaragua
14 Laboratorio Departamental, Secretaria Seccional de Salud del Meta, Villavicencio, Colombia
15 US Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD, USA
Virology Journal 2013, 10:305 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-305Published: 11 October 2013
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) belong to the Picornaviridae family with high similarity to human enteroviruses (HEVs). Limited data is available from Latin America regarding the clinical presentation and strains of these viruses in respiratory disease.
We collected nasopharyngeal swabs at clinics located in eight Latin American countries from 3,375 subjects aged 25 years or younger who presented with influenza-like illness.
Our subjects had a median age of 3 years and a 1.2:1.0 male:female ratio. HRV was identified in 16% and HEV was identified in 3%. HRVs accounted for a higher frequency of isolates in those of younger age, in particular children < 1 years old. HRV-C accounted for 38% of all HRVs detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high proportion of recombinant strains between HRV-A/HRV-C and between HEV-A/HEV-B. In addition, both EV-D68 and EV-A71 were identified.
In Latin America as in other regions, HRVs and HEVs account for a substantial proportion of respiratory viruses identified in young people with ILI, a finding that provides additional support for the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines targeting these pathogens.