Epidemiology and clinical features of rotavirus and norovirus infection among children in Ji’nan, China
1 Department of Infectious Diseases, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Ji’nan 250012, Shandong Province, China
2 Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Ji’nan 250012, Shandong Province, China
3 Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Wenhua Xi Road 44, Ji’nan 250012, Shandong Province, China
4 Qilu Children’s Hospital of Shandong University, Jingshi Road 430, Ji’nan 250012, Shandong Province, China
Virology Journal 2013, 10:302 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-302Published: 8 October 2013
Acute gastroenteritis caused by bacteria, virus and parasite is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Rotavirus and norovirus have been recognized as the most common pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis among children. However, there is still no valuable data about infections of rotavirus and norovirus in children in Ji’nan, an eastern city in China. The aims of the present study are to determine the incidence of rotavirus and norovirus associated acute gastroenteritis in Ji’nan among children, to characterize rotavirus and norovirus strains circulating during this period; and to provide useful epidemiological and clinical data.
Fecal specimens and clinical data were collected from 767 children (502 outpatients and 265 inpatients) under 5 years of age with acute diarrhea at Shandong University Qilu Hospital and Qilu children’s Hospital in Ji’nan, China between February 2011 and January 2012. Virus RNA was extracted, amplified, electrophoresed, sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to determine the prevalent genotypes. Chi-square and U test were used to compare characteristics of clinical manifestation in each group.
Of the 767 specimens 263 (34.3%) were positive for rotavirus and 80 (10.4%) were positive for norovirus. Among 263 rotavirus positive cases, G3 (40.7%) was the most prevalent serotype, P (46.8%) was the dominant genotype and G3P (31.9%) was the most common combination. All of the norovirus strains belonged to GII genogroup including GII.3, GII.4 and GII.6, of which GII.4 (61.2%) was the predominant genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the GII.4 sequences showed that 18 GII.4 strains belonged to GII.4 2004–2006 cluster and 31 GII.4 strains were divided into GII.4 2006b cluster. A peak number of rotavirus infections was observed during the cold season from November to next January. Higher rates of norovirus infections were detected from September to November. Most patients with rotavirus and norovirus associated diarrhea experienced vomiting (88.2% and 67.5%, respectively) and fever (79.1% and 46.3%, respectively).
The present study showed that rotavirus and norovirus were still the important causative agents of pediatric diarrhea in Ji’nan during this period.