H9N2 avian influenza infection altered expression pattern of Sphiogosine-1-phosphate Receptor 1 in BALB/c mice
College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, People’s Republic of China
Virology Journal 2013, 10:296 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-296Published: 30 September 2013
The pathological damage inflicted by virulent AIV strains is often caused by inducing a positive feedback loop of cytokines in immune cells that cause excessive inflammation. Previous research has shown that a G protein-coupled receptor, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1), plays a crucial role in the development of excessive inflammation in influenza virus infection (Cell 146:861–862, 2011; Cell 146:980–991, 2011). BALB/c mice are common laboratory animals used in research of influenza virus; however the effects of influenza infections on expression patterns of S1PR1 in mice are unknown.
We investigated the expression patterns of S1PR1 in normal BALB/c mice and those infected by two distinct H9N2 AIV strains, one (A/chicken/Guangdong/V/2008,V) highly pathogenic, and the other (A/chicken/Guangdong/Ts/2004,Ts), non-pathogenic in mice, using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect S1PR1 mRNA and protein, respectively.
S1PR1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues examined, and significant differences were seen in mRNA expression between infected Ts, V and control mice in detected tissues, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. S1PR1 protein was expressed in the cytoplasm and also demonstrated quantitative changes in expression in the various tissues between mice infected with the two strains of AIV.
Our results provided the first look at differences in S1PR1 expression patterns in BALB/c mice infected by non-pathogenic and highly pathogenic H9N2 influenza viruses. This information will not only be helpful in designing experiments to better understand the role of S1PR1 in virus-host interactions but also in developing novel anti-influenza agents to minimize the mortality and morbidity associated with highly virulent strains in avian and human populations.