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Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus E protein causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and up-regulates interleukin-8 expression

Xingang Xu1, Honglei Zhang1, Qi Zhang1, Jie Dong1, Yabing Liang1, Yong Huang1, Hung-Jen Liu23* and Dewen Tong1*

Author Affiliations

1 College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China

2 Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, 402, Taiwan

3 Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, 402, Taiwan

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Virology Journal 2013, 10:26  doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-26

Published: 19 January 2013

Abstract

Background

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an important pathogen in swine and is responsible for substantial economic losses. Previous studies suggest that the PEDV E protein plays an important role in the viral assembly process. However, the subcellular localization and other functions of PEDV E protein still require more research.

Methods

The subcellular localization and function of PEDV E protein were investigated by examining its effects on cell growth, cell cycle progression, interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression and cell survival.

Results

The results show that plenty of PEDV E protein is localized in the ER, with small quantities localized in the nucleus. The PEDV E protein has no effect on the intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) growth, cell cycle and cyclin A expression. The cells expressing PEDV E protein express higher levels of IL-8 than control cells. Further studies show that PEDV E protein induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated NF-κB which is responsible for the up-regulation of IL-8 and Bcl-2 expression.

Conclusions

This study shows that the PEDV E protein is localized in the ER and the nucleus and it can cause ER stress. The PEDV E protein had no effect on the IEC growth and cell cycle. In addition, the PEDV E protein is able to up-regulate IL-8 and Bcl-2 expression.

Keywords:
PEDV; E protein; ER stress; IL-8; NF-Κb; Bcl-2