Table 1

Comparison between the cytoplasmic RNA viruses and the currently used RNA and DNA viruses for RNAi-based therapy
Genus Main representative Genome(sense) Genome size (Kb) Immuno-genicity Expression level Genomic insertion Time of expression Advantages Limitations
Alphavirus Sindbis virus ssRNA (+) 12 High High No Short-term - Cytoplasmic replication allowing high expression levels and potential non-canonical processing of artificial miRNAs. Toxicity due to viral replication (non-cytopathic vectors overcome this limitation)
- Apoptosis induction, they can be considered in Cancer gene therapy applications.
- Infect neurons in primary and cell lines, could be good candidates for gene therapy in Central Nervous System (CNS)
Flavivirus West Nile virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus ssRNA (+) 11 Medium High No Short-term - Cytoplasmic replication allowing high expression levels and potential non-canonical processing of artificial miRNAs. Toxicity (non-cytopathic vectors available Pre–existing immunity mainly in (sub)tropical countries
- Genetic structure allow easy manipulation
Vesiculovirus Vesicular stomatitis virus ssRNA (-) 11 High High No Short-term - Cytoplasmic replication allowing high expression levels and potential non-canonical processing of artificial miRNAs. Very sensitive to the antiviral action of interferon
- Apoptosis induction, they can be considered in cancer therapy
Lentivirus Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ssRNA (+) 8 Low High Yes Long-term Persistent gene transfer in most tissues Integration might induce oncogenesis
Dependovirus Adeno-associated virus serotype 2 ssDNA <5 Low High Yes Long-term Non-pathogenic parental viruses Integration might induce oncogenesis
Herpesvirus Herpes simplex virus type 1 dsDNA 150 High High No Short-,Medium-term Well suited as oncolytic vector and CNS applications (retrograde axonal transport) Risk of recombination with latently herpes simplex virus-infected cells

Usme-Ciro et al.

Usme-Ciro et al. Virology Journal 2013 10:185   doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-185

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