A possible coincidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis and intraocular lymphoma in a patient with systemic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Department of Ophthalmology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, U Nemocnice 2, 128 08, Prague 2, Czech Republic
Virology Journal 2013, 10:18 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-18Published: 7 January 2013
To present a possible coincidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis and intraocular lymphoma in a patient with systemic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
A 47-year-old woman presented with decreased visual acuity associated with white retinal lesions in both eyes. A history of pneumonia of unknown aetiology closely preceded the deterioration of vision. Five years previously the patient was diagnosed with follicular non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. She was treated with a chemotherapy regimen comprised of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristin, and prednisone with later addition of the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab. She experienced a relapse 19 months later with involvement of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, and commenced treatment with rituximab and 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan. A second relapse occurred 22 months after radioimmunotherapy and was treated with a combination of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and mitoxantrone followed by rituximab. The patient experienced no further relapses until the current presentation (April, 2010).
Pars plana vitrectomy with vitreous fluid analysis was performed in the right eye. PCR testing confirmed the presence of cytomegalovirus in the vitreous. Atypical lymphoid elements, highly suspicious of malignancy were also found on cytologic examination. Intravenous foscarnet was administered continually for three weeks, followed by oral valganciclovir given in a dose of 900 mg twice per day. In addition, the rituximab therapy continued at three monthly intervals. Nevertheless, cessation of foscarnet therapy was followed by a recurrence of retinitis on three separate occasions during a 3-month period instigating its reinduction to the treatment regime after each recurrence.
Cytomegalovirus retinitis is an opportunistic infection found in AIDS patients as well as in bone marrow and solid organ transplant recipients being treated with systemic immunosuppressive drugs. This case presents a less common incidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis occurring in a patient with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. We demonstrated a possible coexistence of cytomegalovirus retinitis and intraocular lymphoma in this particular patient. The final diagnosis was based on clinical manifestations together with the course of uveitis and its response to treatment alongside the results of vitreous fluid analysis. This report highlights the importance of intraocular fluid examination in cases with nonspecific clinical manifestations. Such an examination allows for the detection of simultaneously ongoing ocular diseases of differing aetiologies and enables the prompt initiation of effective treatment.