Table 1

Detail of samples collected from districts and diagnostic efficacy of real-time PCR
Province District Type of birds
1Commercial 2Rural 3Wild captive
Flock (n) Blood samples (n) 4Real time PCR Flock (n) Blood samples (n) Real Time PCR Flock (n) Blood samples (n) Real time PCR
M gene F gene M gene F gene M gene F gene
Baluchistan Quetta 09 36 + + 03 12 + + 0.0 0.0 - -
Noshki 0.0 0.0 - - 04 16 - - 0.0 0.0 - -
Zhob 0.0 0.0 - - 01 04 - - 0.0 0.0 - -
Mastoung 0.0 0.0 - - 02 08 - - 0.0 0.0 - -
Loralai 09 03 + + 05 20 + + 0.0 0.0 - -
KPK Abbottabad 11 44 + + 0.0 0.0 - - 0.0 0.0 - -
Mansehra 10 40 + + 0.0 0.0 - - 0.0 0.0 - -
Sindh Karachi 06 24 + + 02 08 + + 0.0 0.0 - -
Hyderabad 03 12 - - 03 12 - - 0.0 0.0 - -
Sukkur 01 04 - - 02 08 - - 0.0 0.0 - -
Punjab Okara 02 08 + + 01 04 + + 04 (turkey and pigeon 16 + +
Faisalabad 10.0 0.3 + + 07 28 + + 02 (pigeon) 08 + +
Layyah 12 04 + + 06 24 - - 0.0 0.0 - -
Pakpattan 02 04 + + 0.0 0.0 - - 0.0 0.0 - -
Sheikhupura 09 36 + + 02 08 - - 0.0 0.0 - -
Sialkot 01 04 + + 02 08 - - 0.0 0.0 - -
Sahiwal 01 04 + + 0.0 0.0 - - 0.0 0.0 - -
Lahore 10.0 03 + + 12 05 + + 05 (peafowl and pigeon) 20 + +
Multan 03 12 + + 0.0 0.0 - - 0.0 0.0 - -
Jhang 02 08 - - 02 08 - - 0.0 0.0 - -

1birds kept under full human husbandry conditions and are fed with commercial food and supplements, 2Birds kept under partial human husbandry conditions and mainly reply on natural source of food. 3Wild birds that are kept under human control and provided commercial food and supplements. 4At least one of the studied flocks in particular district was positive, + and - indicate that samples were detected positive or negative by real-time PCR, respectively.

Shabbir et al.

Shabbir et al. Virology Journal 2013 10:170   doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-170

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